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J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Jan;19(4):1101-22.
Promoting successful cognitive aging: a comprehensive review.
Brigham Behavioral Neurology Group, Division of Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Promoting successful cognitive aging is a topic of major importance to individuals and the field of public health. This review presents a coherent framework not only for evaluating factors, protective activities, and enhancing agents that have already been proposed, but also ones that will be put forward in the future. The promotion of successful cognitive aging involves the dual goals of preventing loss of information processing capacity and cognitive reserve, and enhancing brain capacity and cognitive reserve. Four major lines of evidence are available for evaluating whether a proposed factor promotes successful cognitive aging: 1) epidemiologic/cohort studies; 2) animal/basic science studies; 3) human "proof-of-concept" studies; and 4) human intervention studies. Each line of evidence has advantages and limitations that will be discussed. Through illustrative examples, we trace the ways in which each method informs us about the potential value of several proposed factors. Currently, lines of converging evidence allow the strongest case to be made for physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Although epidemiological data seem to favor the use of statins to lower the risk of dementia, more definitive recommendations await further randomized controlled studies. There is presently no clear evidence that antioxidants or Ginkgo biloba promote successful cognitive aging. The impact of resveratrol, fish oil, and a long list of other proposed agents needs to be determined. Clinicians remain well-positioned to identify and aggressively treat vascular risk factors, diabetes, sleep disorders, and other conditions that may reduce brain capacity, and to encourage activities that can build cognitive reserve.
Molecules. 2010 Mar 3;15(3):1196-212.
trans-Resveratrol as A Neuroprotectant.
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada. email@example.com.
Epidemiological evidence indicates that nutritionally-derived polyphenols such as resveratrol (RES) have neuroprotective properties. Administration of RES to culture media protects a wide variety of neuronal cell types from stress-induced death. Dietary supplementation of RES can ameliorate neuronal damage and death resulting from both acute and chronic stresses in rodents. The specific molecular mechanisms by which RES acts at the cellular level remain incompletely understood. However, many experimental data indicate that RES reduces or prevents the occurrence of oxidative damage. Here we discuss possible mechanisms by which RES might exert protection against oxidative damage and cell death. Evidence suggesting that RES's chemical antioxidant potential is not sufficient explanation for its effects is discussed. Putative biological activities, including interactions with estrogen receptors and sirtuins are critically discussed. We provide a synthesis of how RES's phytoestrogenic properties might mediate the neuronal stress resistance underlying its observed neuroprotective properties.
J Cell Physiol. 2010 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Ameliorative potential of resveratrol on proinflammatory cytokines, hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress, and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
Chronic exposure of pancreatic beta-cells to supraphysiologic glucose causes adverse beta-cell dysfunction. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate the hypothesis that oral administration of resveratrol attenuates hyperglycemia, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence and protects beta-cell ultrastructure in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of resveratrol (5 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days showed a significant decline in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, NF-kappaB p65 unit and nitric oxide (NO) with concomitant elevation in plasma insulin. Further, resveratrol treated diabetic rats elicited a notable attenuation in the levels of lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls in both plasma and pancreatic tissues. The diminished activities of pancreatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as the decreased levels of plasma ceruloplasmin, vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats were reverted to near normalcy by resveratrol administration. Based on histological and ultrastructural observations, it is first-time reported that the oral administration of resveratrol may effectively rescue beta-cells from oxidative damage without affecting their function and structural integrity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that resveratrol exhibits significant antidiabetic potential by attenuating hyperglycemia, enhancing insulin secretion and antioxidant competence in pancreatic beta-cells of diabetic rats. J. Cell. Physiol. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Urol Int. 2010 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Category IIIA with Serenoa repens plus Selenium and Lycopene (Profluss(R)) versus S. repens Alone: An Italian Randomized Multicenter-Controlled Study.
Department of Urology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens + selenium and lycopene (Profluss(R)) versus S. repens alone for the treatment of category IIIa chronic prostati- tis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Patients and Methods: 102 patients with IIIa CP/CPPS were enrolled and randomized into two groups each to receive Profluss or S. repens alone for 8 weeks. Evaluation was based on results of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), IPSS, maximum peak flow rate (MPFR), and PSA measurements at baseline and at weeks 4, 8 and 8 after the end of treatment. The primary endpoint was a >50% reduction in NIH-CPSI score. Secondary endpoints evaluated were MPFR, IPSS, PSA and white blood cell count. Results: No patients withdrew from the study. The mean NIH-CPSI score decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in both groups; we observed a decrease in the total score from 27.45 to 13.27 in group 1 (-51.64%) and from 27.76 to 20.62 in group 2 (-26.06%). IPSS improved significantly (p < 0.001) in both arms, but more in group 1. PSA and white blood cell count decreased significantly (p < 0.007) only in group 1. The MPFR improved more in group 1 (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Profluss is a triple therapy that is safe and well tolerated. It ameliorates symptoms associated with IIIa CP/CPPS. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Maturitas. 2010 Feb 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Flavonoids and age-related disease: Risk, benefits and critical windows.
Department Pharmacology and Toxicology of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA; The Purdue-UAB Botanicals Center of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Plant derived products are consumed by a large percentage of the population to prevent, delay and ameliorate disease burden; however, relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these traditional health products, especially when taken in concert with pharmaceutical agents. The flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites that are common in the diet and appear to provide some health benefits. While flavonoids are primarily derived from soy, many are found in fruits, nuts and more exotic sources, e.g., kudzu. Perhaps the strongest evidence for the benefits of flavonoids in diseases of aging relates to their effect on components of the metabolic syndrome. Flavonoids from soy, grape seed, kudzu and other sources all lower arterial pressure in hypertensive animal models and in a limited number of tests in humans. They also decrease the plasma concentration of lipids and buffer plasma glucose. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant actions, central nervous system effects, gut transport alterations, fatty acid sequestration and processing, PPAR activation and increases in insulin sensitivity. In animal models of disease, dietary flavonoids also demonstrate a protective effect against cognitive decline, cancer and metabolic disease. However, research also indicates that the flavonoids can be detrimental in some settings and, therefore, are not universally safe. Thus, as the population ages, it is important to determine the impact of these agents on prevention/attenuation of disease, including optimal exposure (intake, timing/duration) and potential contraindications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heart Fail Rev. 2010 Mar 18. [Epub ahead of print]
Resveratrol and red wine, healthy heart and longevity.
Cardiovacular Research Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, 06030-1110, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Resveratrol, a polyphenol phytoalexin, present in red wine and grapes possesses diverse biochemical and physiological properties, including estrogenic, antiplatelet, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as a wide range of health benefits ranging from chemoprevention to cardioprotection. Recently, several studies described resveratrol as an anti-aging compound. This review focuses on the anti-aging aspects of resveratrol, the possible mechanisms of action, and emerging controversy on its life-prolonging ability. It appears that resveratrol can induce the expression of several longevity genes including Sirt1, Sirt3, Sirt4, FoxO1, Foxo3a and PBEF and prevent aging-related decline in cardiovascular function including cholesterol level and inflammatory response, but it is unable to affect actual survival or life span of mice.
Ageing Res Rev. 2010 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Protein kinase A signaling as an anti-aging target.
Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
Protein kinase A (PKA) is a multi-unit protein kinase that mediates signal transduction of G-protein-coupled receptors through its activation by adenyl cyclase (AC)-mediated cAMP. The vital importance of PKA signaling to cellular function is reflected in the widespread expression of PKA subunit genes. As one of its many functions, PKA plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism and triglyceride storage. The PKA pathway has become of great interest to the study of aging, since mutations that cause a reduction in PKA signaling have been shown to extend lifespan in yeast, and to both delay the incidence and severity of age-related disease, and to promote leanness and longevity, in mice. There is increasing interest in the potential for the inhibition or redistribution of adiposity to attenuate aging, since obesity is associated with impaired function of most organ systems, and is a strong risk factor for shortened life span. Its association with coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancer, sleep apnea and osteoarthritis is leading to its accession as a major cause of global ill health. Therefore, gene signaling pathways such as PKA that promote adiposity are potential inhibitory targets for aging intervention. Since numerous plant compounds have been found that both prevent adipogenesis and inhibit PKA signaling, a focused investigation into their effects on biological systems and the corresponding molecular mechanisms would be of high relevance to the discovery of novel and non-toxic compounds that promote healthy aging. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010 Jan;23(1):59-62.
Antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Tribulus alatus in rats.
Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
The antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Tribulus alatus was investigated by determination of blood glutathione, serum ascorbic acid and serum superoxide dismutase in rats. All groups treated with aerial parts without fruit, fruits and total herb showed a significant increase in all measured parameters (P<0.05). Upon fractionation of the alcoholic extracts using solvents with different polarities, all fractions revealed a significant increase in serum superoxide dismutase (P<0.05). On the other hand chloroformic fraction of aerial parts without fruit extract and ethylacetate fraction of fruits extract exhibited a significant increase in blood glutathione level. All fractions of fruits extract, chloroformic and ethylacetate fractions of aerial parts without fruit extract significantly increase the serum ascorbic acid concentration (P<0.05).
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